Virtual Conference

Hamidreza Zafari

Joint reconstruction Reserch center, Iran

Title: Approach to hetrotopic ossification (HO)


Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a prevalent complication after trauma, injury, or surgery defined by the existence of extraskeletal lamellar type of bone in muscle and soft tissue. HO is induced by infiltration of inflammatory cells and osteoinductive growth factors.these growth factors are released after injury and activate an osteochondrogenic program. HO formation takes 6-12 weeks after the operation and ceases after that without any progression. Non-specific signs and symptoms hinder the early diagnosis and consist of fever, erythema, localized pain, tenderness, swelling, and decreased joint motion. HO occurs mainly in areas susceptible to injuries such as thigh, elbow, pelvis, and shoulder but can occur anywhere.. The factors which can lead to heterotopic ossification following hip arthroplasty are ankylosing spondylitis, hypertrophic osteoarthritis, and Paget’s disease. and some surgical factors like increased time of ischemia, method of surgical approach, and the utilization of cemented implants. In fracture-induced HO, the risk factors comprise of surgical approach, concurrent neurologic injury, delayed internal fixation, and usage or replacement of bone graft. The most effective treatment of HO is prophylaxis. In case of painful and symptomatic HO, which limits the patient’s quality of life, surgery in addition to oral prophylaxis (NSAID), COX-2 blockers and/or low dose irradiation is indicated.


Hamidreza Zafari has completed his Orthopedic surgery at the age of 36 years from tehran university medical science, Tehran University is the most prestigious university in Iran. He is currently working as an orthopedic specialist in Iran. He has performed more than a thousand successful and independent orthopedic operations. Several scientific articles have been published or are being published by him.